SALVATION

How does one get saved?  Scripture teaches that one gets initially justified by faith and baptism as a free gift, God then allows us to participate to stay justified and continue our salvation in many ways.  Although the Bible teaches about Jesus's plan for our salvation, the Bible never claims to be the sole authority to do so.  After Jesus died all of his teachings (including information about the church, leadership, morality, and salvation) were passed on with a living tradition first to the apostles, then their successors.  Eventually, documents were written about Jesus and his teachings.  The catholic church (Magesterium) was authorized by Jesus (through the commissioning of Peter, the apostles, and their successors) and selected which of the older writings (old testament) and which of the new writings (new testament) should be included in an official canon of scripture.  This process was finalized in the Councils of Rome, Hippo, and Carthage establishing the 73 Books of the Bible – 382 AD, 393 AD, and 397 AD respectively. The living tradition of the church including the consensus teaching of the church fathers also give us part of God's divine revelation.  The Bible itself even claims that the church, not the bible, is the pillar and bulwark of truth (1 Tim 3:15).

Salvation: A Past Event
We can’t scan through many pages of the Bible without finding passages that refer to one’s salvation as a past event. For instance, just look at Paul’s letter to the Ephesians: “For by grace you have been saved through faith” (Eph 2:8-9). The tense of the word saved is in the past, implying that one is saved at a point in time. Similarly, Paul speaks of the hope that believers hold for the redemption of their bodies, saying that “in this hope, we were saved” (Rom 8:24). Again with the past tense. Salvation is a past event. But, salvation is also spoken of in the present tense as well.

Salvation: A Process
If we read on, we will find that not all verses that speak of salvation are set in the past tense. For instance, Paul writes to the Philippians, instructing them: “work out your own salvation with fear and trembling” (Phil 2:12). By instructing them to “work out” their salvation, it implies that salvation is something that is happening more than something that happened. One might point out that Paul was instructing the Philippians on how to become saved. And this is an important point to be made. But I think that it doesn’t match up with Paul’s original meaning. For instance, Paul is writing to the Christian community that he and Timothy established in Philippi. In his greeting, he addresses the letter: “to all the saints in Christ Jesus who are at Philippi…” (Phil 1:1). This isn’t exactly how you would greet people who have not yet experienced salvation. Paul is exhorting the Philippians to grow closer to God. But he is doing so with the knowledge that salvation is something that is continual, not a one-time deal. Peter had also written similar words. He says to his readers: “Though you do not now see him, you believe in him and rejoice with joy that is inexpressible and filled with glory, obtaining the outcome of your faith, the salvation of your souls” (1 Peter 1:9, emphasis added). Again, notice that this is in the present tense: obtaining salvation. If salvation is something that occurred in the past, and something that continues through the reader’s life, you might expect that it’s spoken of as a future event.

Salvation: A Future Hope
Paul, writing to the Philippians says that the God “who began a good work in you will bring it to completion at the day of Jesus Christ” (Phil 1:6). This is the hope that Christians hold dear to their hearts: that day when our salvation is complete; that day when go to our final home with our Lord. This is the final salvation that we one day hope to attain. Again, writing to the Romans, St. Paul tells his readers that “salvation is nearer to us now than when we first believed” (Rom 13:11). Salvation is something that we can experience in our everyday lives, and it’s something that we ultimately hope to see to completion.

JUSTIFICATION


Justification is the process by which God welcomes us into his family, into the New Covenant.  He makes us righteous by moving our hearts to faith, forgiving our sins, and reconciling us with the Father. God then invites us to participate in this ongoing justification.

Justification is more than just a divine declaration of acquittal, as in a courtroom.  An incomplete and therefore incorrect view of justification is the following:


Justification is only belief in Christ's atonement for our sins and profession of this fact to receive individual justification. Once received, this initial justification atones for all one's sins past,

present, and future. Once received, justification can never be lost.


The presumption above is that justification is a one-time event and cannot be undone.  But, even most protestant theologians now understand that this definition of justification is flawed and does not consider Paul's complete teaching on justification.  In protestant theology, a new understanding of Paul's teaching is often referred to as the "new perspective" on Paul. This "new perspective" realizes the following:

 
   1. Paul did not have a modern introspective guilt complex (Krister Stendahl).
     2. Judaism was not a religion of human effort or "works righteousness", but of covenantal nomism: keeping the law as a response to God's grace (E.P. Sanders).
     3. The center of Paul's theology was not justification but participation in Christ (Sanders).
     4. Justification is primarily about the inclusion of Gentiles in the covenant community apart from keeping the Jewish law, especially the Jewish boundary markers of circumcision, food (kosher), and Sabbath (D.G. Dunn).
     5. Justification is God's gracious declaration of membership in the covenant, which will be followed at the judgment day by God's declaration of final vindication, based on works (N.T. Wright).

This "new perspective" on Paul is similar to what has long been catholic teaching: "Getting in" the covenant is by grace that moves our heart to belief and baptism. "Staying in" the covenant is by grace and good works (ongoing justification and sanctification).  When we reject the covenant through sin (Gal 5:4; 1 Tim 4:1; 2 Pet 2:20-21; 2 Jn 1:8; Heb 10:26-31), Jesus gave us a way to rejoin the covenant by confession with those who have been given authority to forgive sins (Jn 20:21-23) .

Although Paul does use "court-room" language to describe aspects of justification, the respected Anglican theologian N.T. Wright explains, that justification "is never independent of the covenant setting. It cannot be made into an absolute and free-standing concept without doing violence both to itself and to the fundamental meaning of the covenant." (N.T. Wright, What Saint Paul Really Said, Eerdsman Publishing Co, Grand Rapids, MI, Pg 137)

AFTER INITIAL JUSTIFICATION,

JUSTIFICATION IS ONGOING,  NOT A ONE-TIME EVENT


2 Cor. 4:16 – though our outer nature is wasting away, our inner nature is being renewed “every day.” This not only proves that justification is internal (not legal and external), but that it is also ongoing (it’s not a one-time event of accepting Jesus as personal Lord and Savior). Our inner nature is being renewed every day as we persevere in faith, hope, and love.


John 3:16 – justification is ongoing, not a one-time event. God so loved (past) the world, that He gave (past) His only Son, that whoever believes (ongoing) in Him may have eternal life. The word “believes” is “pisteuo” in Greek which necessarily includes obedience throughout one’s life. This is proved by 1 Peter 2:7-8 which also uses “pisteuo” (to obey) and “apitheo” (to disobey). The same word “pisteuo” is used in many other verses about “believing in Christ” such as John 3:36; 5:24; Rom. 4:24; 10:9-10; cf. Rom. 1:5,16; 6:17; 16:26; 1 John 5:13 (often used by Protestants to support their “faith alone” theology). To “believe” means to “obey” throughout one’s life; it is not a one-time acceptance of Jesus as Savior.


Heb. 5:9 – Paul also confirms this by writing that Jesus became the source of eternal salvation to all who obey him. Here are some examples of justification as an on-going process, and not a one-time event.


Gen. 12:1-4 – Abram is justified here, as God promises to make his name great and bless the families of the earth through his seed. Abram is justified by his faith in God. Heb. 11:8-10 confirms Abraham’s justification occurred here, before Gen. 15:6 (later) by referring to Gen. 12, not Gen. 15. Abraham’s justification increased over time because justification is not a one-time event, but an ongoing process of growing in holiness.


Gen. 14:19, 22-23 – Abram is also justified here, by being blessed by the priest-king Melchizedek. Melchizedek calls Abram blessed and Abram gives him a tenth of everything.


Gen. 15:6 – Abram is further justified here, as God promises him that his descendants will be as numerous as the stars. Because the Scripture says, “He believed the Lord, and He reckoned it to him as righteousness,” Protestants often say this was Abram’s initial justification, and cite Rom 4:2 to prove Abram was justified by his faith. Yes, it is true Abram was justified by his faith, but he was justified 25 years earlier in Gen. 12:1-4, as Heb. 11:8-10 proves.


Gen. 22:1-18 – Abraham is further justified here, this time by works when he offered his son Isaac as a sacrifice to God. James 2:21 proves this as James writes, “Was not Abraham our father justified by works when he offered his son Isaac upon the altar?” James then confirms this by writing, “Abraham believed God, and it was reckoned to him as righteousness” (James 2:23). These verses prove that justification before God is an on-going process, not a one-time event of accepting Jesus as personal Lord and Savior, and is accomplished by faith and works.


1 Sam. 13:14 – David is justified here, as God describes him as “a man after his own heart.” No one in Scripture is described as this. Acts 13:22 confirms David’s justification before God.


1 Sam. 16:13 – David is also justified here. “The Spirit of the Lord came mightily upon David from that day forward.”


1 Sam. 17:37-54 – David is further justified here, as he responds to God’s grace and God delivers him from the hand of Goliath the Philistine.


2 Sam. 6:9,14 – David is further justified here, as he expresses fear for the Lord in the presence of His ark, and dances before the ark of the Lord with all his might.


2 Sam. 12:7-15 – however, after David’s on-going justification before God, David falls out of justification by committing adultery with Bathsheba and slaying Uriah the Hittite. David still had faith in God, but he lost his justification because of his evil works.


Psalm 32:1-2; Rom. 4:7-8; cf. 51:2,7-10,17 – David repents of his sin and writes these beautiful psalms about God’s mercy and forgiveness. Of himself, he writes, “Blessed is he whose transgression is forgiven, whose sin is covered up.” David is re-justified before God. This proves that we can be justified before God, then lose our justification, and then be re-justified through repentance and reconciliation with God.


Matt 16:18-19 – Jesus blesses Simon for receiving a Revelation from God, changes his name to Peter, and gives him the keys to the kingdom of heaven. In John 6:68-69, Peter, justified before God, declares that Jesus has the words of eternal life. In Luke 22:31-32, Jesus prays for Peter that his faith may not fail and charges him to strengthen the rest of the apostles. In these and many other examples, Peter is justified before God.


Matt 26:75; Mark 14:72; John 18:17, 25-27 – Peter denies he knows Jesus and loses his justification before God.


John 21:15-17 – Peter is re-justified before God after he negates his three-fold denial of Jesus with a three-fold confirmation of his love for him. Jesus then charges Peter to feed the Lord’s sheep. Peter was justified, loses his justification, and regains it again through repentance and love.


Luke 15:24,32 – the prodigal son was dead, and now is alive again; he was lost and now is found. The prodigal son regained his father’s favor through repentance (v. 18-19,21). When we ask our Father for forgiveness, we too will regain His favor and be justified.


Acts 9:1- 17 – Protestants would say that Paul is instantly justified here when he encounters Christ, obeys His command to enter the city and is moved by the Holy Spirit. They would say that Paul’s sins are now covered up and Christ’s righteousness is imputed to him.


Acts 9:18; 22:16 – then why does Ananias command Saint Paul (who was directly chosen by Christ) to stand up and be baptized and “wash away” his sins? Because justification, as the Church has taught for 2,000 years, is ongoing. It is not a one-time event of accepting Jesus as personal Lord and Savior. Justification is freely given by God through faith, hope, love, and the sacraments of the Church (here, baptism).

CHURCH FATHERS ON JUSTIFICATION CAUSING INFUSED RIGHTEOUSNESS

MAINTAINING JUSTIFICATION AND BECOMING HOLY (SANCTIFICATION) ALONG THE JOURNEY OF SALVATION


As the council of Trent teaches (see above), "the sinner is justified by God by His grace, through the redemption that is in Christ Jesus."  However, our redemption doesn't stop there and is not guaranteed (demonstrated shortly). The bible teaches that God invites us into the process of our own redemption. This faith and obedience are free gifts.  However, God doesn't force himself onto us.  He gives us the capacity to assent to His love and teaching.  The more we accept His love and teaching, the more we grow in holiness and in capacity to share God's love with others. The pinnacle of our redemption is the death and resurrection of Jesus, but it is also much more.  Our redemption is found in the entire life of Christ.

BIBLICAL SALVATION

Baptism (Jn 3:3; 1 Pet 3:21; Titus 3:5;
           Acts 22:16, Rom 6:3-4, Gal 3:27, Eph 4:4-6)
Belief (Mk 16:16, Jn 3:16; Acts 16:31)
Blood – His (Rom 5:9; Heb 9:22)
Commandments – keep (Rev 14:12; 1 Jn 5:3)
Cross (Eph 2:16; Col 2:14)
Endurance (Mt 24:13, 10:22, Mk 13:13, Heb 10:36)
Faith (Col 1:22-23; Mt 24:13, Rom 1:17)
Forgive – others (Mt 6:15, Mk 11:25)
Grace (Acts 15:11; Eph 2:8)
Holiness (Heb 12:14)
Kindness – remain in His (Rom 11:22)
Love God (Jam 1:12)
Love (1 Cor 13:2; Gal 5:6)
Mercy – show (Jam 2:13; Lk 6:36; Mt 9:13)
Mouth – declare with ours (Lk 12:8; Rom 10:9)
Name – believe in His (1 Jn 5:13)
Peace w/everyone (Heb 12:14)
Repentance (Acts 2:38; 2 Pet 3:9)
Righteousness – His (Rom 5:17; 2 Pet 1:1)
Sonship – Jesus (1 Jn 5:4)
Spirit – work of the (Jn 3:5; 2 Cor 3:6)
Suffering – joined with Christ (Col 1:24)
Temptation – endured (Jam 1:12)
Truth – knowledge of (1 Tim 2:4; Heb 10:26)
Words – good (Mt 12:36-37; Jam 2:12)
Works (John 5:28-29; Rom 2:6-7;

              Jam 2:14, Rev 2:23; Rev 14:13)


 

OBEDIENCE IS NECESSARY

Mt 7:24-27 (Listen & practice)

Gal 6:7-8 (Reap what one sows)

Gal 6:9 (Do not grow weary doing good)

Rom 8:12-13 (Put to death sin)

Rom 2:13 (Observe the law)

Matt 21:28 (2 sons, one is obedient)

Rom 1:5, 16:26 (Obedience of Faith)

JUDGED BY GOOD AND BAD WORKS

Mt 25:31 (Sheep & Goats)

Rom 2:6-7 (God repays by works)

Jam 2:24 (Works, not faith alone)

2 Cor 5:10 (Judgement seat of Christ)

Heb 9:27 (We are judged when we die)

CONFESSING SINS IS NECESSARY

Mt 6:12 (Jesus says we need to confess)

1 Jn 1:5-10 (Need to confess sins)

1 Jn 2:1 (Advocate for our sins)

1 Jn 5:16, Rom 5:12 (Mortal sin is deadly)

Jn 20:23 (Priests authorized to absolve)

SALVATION IS A PROCESS, A JOURNEY

Rom 8:24 (We were Saved)

1 Cor 1:18 (We are being Saved)

Rom 5:9 (We will be Saved)

AUTHORITY IN CHRIST’S KINGDOM

Lk 22:29-30 (Kingdom conferred to apostles)

Mt 16:19 (Peter has ultimate authority)

Mt 18:18 (The Church has authority)Eph 2:20 (Apostles/prophets are foundation)

1 Tim 3:15 (Catholic Church is the truth)

THE NECESSITY AND POWER OF BAPTISM


Scripture mentions many times the importance of baptism to be saved (Jn 3:3; 1 Pet 3:21; Titus 3:5; Rom 6:3-4, Gal 3:27, Eph 4:4-6). Performed by an authorized person with the proper form (In the name of the Father, in the name of the Son, and in the name of the Holy Spirit) and matter (water), baptism truly cleanses away sin from the individual and anoints them with the Holy Spirit. This anointing by the Holy Spirit as demonstrated by Jesus at his own baptism (Mt 3:16), which was foretold by the prophet Isaiah (Isa 11:2-3a) and imparts the gifts of the Holy Spirit into our soul (Isa 11:2-3a). Paul tells us in direct and clear words that Noah and his family were saved in the ark passing through water which prefigured baptism, which now saves you (1 Pet 3:20-21). Baptism is the gate into the church and new life with Christ.

Martin Luther knew the importance of Baptism, the power it had to give new life, and its necessity for salvation as his words signify:


“Baptism, then, signifies two things—death and resurrection, that is, full and complete justification… This death and resurrection we call the new creation, regeneration, and spiritual birth.  This should not be understood only allegorically as the death of sin and the life of grace, as many understand it, but as actual death and resurrection. For baptism is not a false sign.”
                           ~ Martin Luther, Luther’s Works, Fortress Press, Ed. Pelikan and Lehman, 36:67-68

CHURCH FATHERS ON THE NECESSITY OF BAPTISM FOR SALVATION

THE EUCHARIST


Jesus tells us in John 15:5-6 that if we abide in Him, he will abide in us. If we don't remain in Him we will be thrown out like a branch, wither, thrown into a fire, and burned (lose salvation).  John Chapter 6 is the Bread of Life Discourse.  This is where Jesus tells us how He will abide in us and we in Him.  In very strong and specific language, He describes the consequences of not doing so.

John Chapter 6 - Bread of Life Discourse
"So they said to him, “Sir, give us this bread always.” Jesus said to them, “I am the bread of life; whoever comes to me will never hunger, and whoever believes in me will never thirst... I am the bread of life. Your ancestors ate the manna in the desert, but they died; this is the bread that comes down from heaven so that one may eat it and not die. 51 I am the living bread that came down from heaven; whoever eats this bread will live forever, and the bread that I will give is my flesh for the life of the world....”Jesus said to them, “Amen, amen, I say to you, unless you eat the flesh of the Son of Man and drink his blood, you do not have life within you. Whoever eats my flesh and drinks my blood has eternal life, and I will raise him on the last day. For my flesh is true food, and my blood is true drink. Whoever eats my flesh and drinks my blood remains in me and I in him. Just as the living Father sent me and I have life because of the Father, so also the one who feeds on me will have life because of me.  This is the bread that came down from heaven. Unlike your ancestors who ate and still died, whoever eats this bread will live forever.” 

     John 6:34-35; 48-50; 53-58

Jesus's instructions are clear.  He is the living bread (Eucharist) which we need to eat to have eternal life (have sanctifying grace which maintains our Justification). If we do so, he will raise us on the last day (be saved to Heaven).  His flesh (Eucharist) is for the life of the world (Salvation of all).  if we don't eat the flesh of the Son of Man (Eucharist) and drink his blood (Precious blood), we have no life within us (lose our Justification and Salvation).

As a result of the difficulty of this teaching many of His disciples left Him.  Jesus didn't run after them to explain that he was just speaking symbolically.  He didn't later teach His apostles some hidden meaning of this discourse which he often did with other teachings and parables.

THE LAST SUPPER

Jesus instituted the Eucharist as the New Covenant (Matt 26:28; Mark 14:24; ) during the Last Supper and established it as a memorial to be celebrated repeatedly (Luke 22:19; 1 Cor 11:24) until He comes again.  With eleven words from the priest and the power of the Holy Spirit, simple bread becomes the body and blood of Christ: "This is my Body (Matt 26:26; Luke 22:19; 1 Cor 11:24)...This is the Chalice of my Blood (Luke 22:20; 1 Cor 11:25)."

THE PRIESTHOOD OF THE NEW COVENANT

The last supper is the new Passover and Jesus is the Passover lamb.  Like the Passover of ancient Israel, the Passover lamb had to be eaten.  Jesus holds up the bread and then the wine, consecrating them in prayer and instructing the apostles to continue to do so as an everlasting memorial.  Since Jesus is God, and God is not constrained by time or space, whenever these New Covenant priests celebrate this required memorial, they are re-experiencing Jesus's passion, death, and resurrection.  The event doesn't re-crucify Jesus.  For it was Jesus Himself that required this re-presentation and only the apostles and their successors had the authority and the power to do so.  There is a direct line of succession from Jesus, to the apostles and down to every priest, bishop, and pope ever since.  There was a literal laying of hands and consecration that transferred down from these initial New Covenant priests all the way down to our current priests and bishops. 

The Eucharist is the New Covenant
Mt 26:28, Mk 14:24, Lk 22:20, 1 Cor 11:25
The Eucharist was instituted at the Last Supper
Mt 26:26-27, Mk 14:22-23, Lk 22:19-20, 1 Cor 11:24-25
The Eucharist Celebration is Required as a Memorial
Lk 22:19, 1 Cor 11:25

(NOT) SAVED BY FAITH ALONE


Are we saved by a one-time event by declaring our faith in Jesus whereby God imputes (takes away the debt of sin legally) the righteousness of Jesus unto us to justify (save) us? No. Are we forgiven for all of our sins past, present, and future and can never lose our salvation? No. One of Martin Luther’s inspiring verses was Rom 1:17 – “The one who is righteous will live by faith.” Yet, he ignored hundreds of bible verses that defined justification and salvation. Being saved by faith alone is a man-made tradition that is not supported by the bible.

Martin Luther added "alone" after "faith" in Rom 3:28 in his German translation and had no problem admitting that he changed the bible.

 

"You tell me what a great fuss the Papists are making because the word alone is not in the text of Paul...say right out to him 'Dr. Martin Luther will have it so'...I will have it so, and I order it to be so, and my will is reason enough! I know very well that the word 'alone' is not in the Latin or the Greek text."
           ~ Martin Luther, Stoddard J. Rebuilding a Lost Faith. 1922, pp. 101-102

"My word is the word of Christ; my mouth is the mouth of Christ."
           ~ Martin Luther, O'Hare PF. The Facts About Luther, 1916-1987, pp. 203-4

Paul uses the word faith (or faith-like) around 200 times. If Paul intended to teach saved by “faith alone” he would have taught with the phrase “faith alone” or “faith only” or have commented similarly.  The phrase “faith alone” does occur in the bible one time!  James states in Jam 2:24, “You see that a person is justified by works and NOT by faith alone.” (Emphasis mine)  The chapter concludes, “For just as the body without the spirit is dead, so faith without works is also dead." Jam 2:26

Do some verses “imply” saved by faith alone? No.
Rom 3:28 – "For we consider that a person is justified by faith apart from works of the law." But works of the law were the Old Covenant rituals of circumcision, purity, and dietary laws, not moral works (Luther actually added the word “alone” after faith in his bible translation.)
Eph 2:8-9 – Explains we are saved by faith through grace.  But, read Eph 2:10 which adds works, not excludes them.
Rom 1:17 – "The one who is righteous by faith will live." Paul is quoting Hab 2:4 where the proud people are contrasted with righteous people who live (behavior) by faith.  Yet, he clearly does not state “faith alone.”

FAITH - THE FIRST STEP

 

Peter Kreeft explains the necessity of faith as the first step in our salvation:

“Faith is the root, the necessary beginning. Hope is the stem, the energy that makes the plant grow.  Love is the fruit, the flower, the visible product, the bottom line. The plant of our new life in Christ is one; the life of God comes into us by faith, through us by hope, and out of us by the works of love.”
~ Peter Kreeft, Justification by Faith, Chap 44 in Fundamentals of the Faith, Ignatius Press, 1988, 277-281
 
The whole bible is the Word of God and must be understood in its entirety.  Verses don’t cancel each other out.  Rather, verses are meant to be puzzle pieces that are part of the big picture of the Trinity, Christian life, and our redemption. Jesus’s entire life is part of our redemption with His passion and death being the pinnacle.
 
Some bible passages certainly place emphasis on faith.  However, to claim that faith is the only necessary requirement for salvation is to exclude hundreds of other bible verses that reveal the other aspects and requirements of salvation.
 
Jesus states clearly that we need to forgive others in order for our Father I heaven to forgive us (Mk 11:25).  Moreover, Paul states that we all reap what we sow.  If we sin of the flesh, we will reap corruption; but if we stay in the Spirit, we will reap eternal life from the Spirit (Gal 6:7-8). Clearly, Paul shows the necessity of good behavior (works) as he states, “For he will repay according to each one’s deeds: to those who by patiently doing good seek for glory and honor and immortality, he will give eternal life; while for those who are self-seeking and who obey not the truth but wickedness, there will be wrath and fury.” (Rom 2:7) Paul flat out tells who will be justified, “For it is not the hearers of the law who are righteous in God’s sight, but the doers of the law who will be justified.” (Rom 2:13)

ONCE JUSTIFIED, I WILL NO LONGER SIN!  WRONG!!


Being initially justified by Christ does not automatically make you avoid sin.  Some will point to Romans 6 as proof that once we are justified, we are unable to sin.  Certainly, as we grow in holiness we can distance ourselves from sin.  But, Romans 6 displays what we are capable of. The end of Romans 6 states, "But now that you have been freed from sin and have become slaves of God, the benefit that you has led to sanctification." (Rom 6:22)  We have the possibility of becoming sanctified (and therefore avoiding sin), not the guarantee of it.  This is another example of not taking all of scripture into context. And, if we can't lose our salvation, why would Paul tell us what can lead to our sanctification?  According to Luther's theology, there would be no need for sanctification after salvation. Yet, God created us with free wills. For Him to take away our free wills would mean that he failed in his creation and that he desires robots. Initial justification takes away past sins, not our tendency to sin. This tendency is called concupiscence as described in 1 John 2:16.

Martin Luther’s observation of the result of “Saved by Faith Alone” on human behavior


“Unfortunately, it is our daily experience that now under the gospel [saved by faith alone], the people entertain greater and bitterer hatred and envy and are worse with their avarice and money-grabbing than before under the papacy.  The people feel that they are free from the bonds and fetters of the pope, but now they also want to get rid of the gospel and of all the laws of God.  Everybody thinks that Christian liberty and licentiousness of the flesh are one in the same thing as if now everybody was allowed to do what he wants. Avarice, usury, debauchery, drunkenness, blasphemy, lying and cheating are far more prevalent now than they were under the papacy.  This state of morals brings general discredit unto the gospel and its preachers.  And the people say, “If this gospel is true, the person professing it should be more pious.”
              
  ~ Martin Luther, The Facts About Luther, Msgr. Patrick F. O’Hare

LOSING YOUR SALVATION

The bible has clear passages that teach us that salvation is a process that can be lost by acts of commission or omission.

Gen 3:16-25 (Adam and Eve)

Mt 7:22-23 (Self-deception)

Mt 10:22 (Need to endure to end)

Jer 17:9 (The heart is deceitful)

Lk 8:13 (Believe, tested, fall away)

Jn 5:29 (Do evil and be condemned)

Rom 1:18-32 (Mortal sin)

Rom 2:3 (Judge others so be judged)

Rom 2:5-11 (Repay by deeds, wrath)

Rom 8:24 (In hope we are saved)

Rom 11:17-24 (Branches cut off)

1 Cor 4:4 (I am not justified, God judges)

1 Cor 6:9 (Wrongdoers after sanctified)

1 Cor 9:27 (Paul worries about being disqualified)

1 Cor 10:12 (Think standing, may fall)

1 Cor 15:1-2 (If you hold message firmly)

2 Cor 5:10 (Judged by Christ for works)

Gal 5:4 (Fallen away from grace)

Gal 5:16-21 (Sins of flesh lose salvation)

Phil 2:12 (Work out salvation, fear/trembling)

Col 1:22-23 (Reconciled if you keep faith)

1 Tim 1:9 (Faith can be shipwrecked)

1 Tim 4:1 (Depart from faith)

1 Tim 5:8 (Disown faith)

1 Tim 6:10 (Wander from faith)

1 Tim 6:21 (Missed faith)

2 Thes 2:13-15 (Hold fast to traditions)

Heb 2:1-3 (Drift away/neglect salvation)

Heb 3:12-14 (Hold firm to the end)

Heb 6:4-6 (Saved, fall away, can’t be restored)

Heb 6:11-12 (Assurance of hope at very end)

Heb 10:26-31 (Persist in sin after saved)

2 Pet 2:20-21 (Fall back to sin after saved)

2 Jn 1:8 (Lose reward that we worked for)

Rev 21:8 (Cowardly, faithless, liars)

THE ORIGINAL APOSTOLIC CHURCH IN THE BOOK OF ACTS

IS THE SAME CATHOLIC CHURCH TODAY

The early church was a community of believers in Jesus Christ.  The second chapter of Acts tells us what their fundamental characteristics were, "They devoted themselves to the teaching of the apostles and to the communal life, to the breaking of the bread and to the prayers."  This has been Catholic life ever since.  Breaking of Bread is synonymous with celebrating the memorial of the Last Supper as Jesus commanded, "He took the bread, said the blessing, broke it, and gave it to them, saying, “This is my body, which will be given for you; do this in memory of me.”  We see that same pattern in each synoptic gospel and at the Bread of Life discourse, Jesus takes, blesses, breaks, and gives his Body to us.  All early Christians recognized the breaking as the Eucharist.

St. Justin Martyr gives a detailed description of early Christian worship as he defends the faith to the pagan authority, giving a description that exactly matches the Catholic Mass today.

"But we, after we have thus washed him who has been convinced and has assented to our teaching, bring him to the place where those who are called brethren are assembled, in order that we may offer hearty prayers in common for ourselves and for the baptized person, and for all others in every place, that we may be counted worthy, now that we have learned the truth, by our works also to be found good citizens and keepers of the commandments, so that we may be saved with an everlasting salvation. Having ended the prayers, we salute one another with a kiss. There is then brought to the president of the brethren (Presider=Priest) bread and a cup of wine mixed with water, and he taking them, gives praise and glory to the Father of the universe, through the name of the Son and of the Holy Ghost, and offers thanks at considerable length for our being counted worthy to receive these things at His hands.  And when he has concluded the prayers and thanksgivings, all the people present express their assent by saying Amen.  And when the president has given thanks, and all the people have expressed their assent, those who are called by us deacons give to each of those present to partake of the bread and wine mixed with water over which the thanksgiving was pronounced, and to those who are absent they carry away a portion."
                                                                                       ~ St. Justin, First Apology, Chap 65, (AD 153)

One of the Apostolic Fathers, Saint Clement of Rome, describes how the Apostles led the church with the full authority of Jesus.  And, that authority was given fully to their successors, the bishops, priests, and deacons.

"Now the gospel was given to the Apostles for us by the Lord Jesus Christ, and Jesus the Christ was sent from God. So thereafter, when the Apostles had been given their instructions...they set out in the full assurance of the Holy Spirit to proclaim the coming of God's kingdom. And as they went through the territories and townships preaching, they appointed their first converts...to be bishops and deacons for believers of the future...and they went on to add instruction that if these should fall asleep, other accredited persons should succeed them in their offices."
                      ~ St. Clement of Rome, First Epistle to the Corinthians, 42-44, (AD 96)

CHRIST IS THE HEAD, THE CATHOLIC CHURCH IS THE BODY

St. Paul uses anatomic language to describe the relationship of the church with Jesus.  Jesus doesn't need us but chooses us.  By his design, His kingdom on earth was set up as a particular entity with authorized people in charge, a new law, and a specific process of entry.  His Kingdom is the Catholic Church, the people authorized to be in charge are the three-level hierarchical structure of bishop, priest, and deacon.  The law of this kingdom is the Law of Love and the Eucharist.  Entry into the Kingdom is by faith and baptism.


Col 1:18 "He is the head of the body, the church...that in all things he himself might be preeminent." 


Eph 1:22-23 "And he put all things beneath his feet and gave him as head over all things to the church, which is his body, the fullness of the one who fills all things in every way."


1 Cor 12:12-13 "As a body is one though it has many parts, and all the parts of the body, though many, are one body, so also Christ. For in one Spirit we were all baptized into one body... and we were all given to drink of one Spirit." 


1 Cor 12:22-27 "Indeed, the parts of the body that seem to be weaker are all the more necessary, and those parts of the body that we consider less honorable we surround with greater honor, and our less presentable parts are treated with greater propriety, whereas our more presentable parts do not need this. But God has so constructed the body as to give greater honor to a part that is without it, so that there may be no division in the body, but that the parts may have the same concern for one another. If [one] part suffers, all the parts suffer with it; if one part is honored, all the parts share its joy. Now you are Christ's body, and individually parts of it."  


Rom 12:4-5 "For as in one body we have many parts, and all the parts do not have the same function, so we, though many, are one body in Christ and individually parts of one another."


Eph 4:3-6 "Strive to preserve the unity of the spirit through the bond of peace: one body and one Spirit, as you were also called to the one hope of your call; one Lord, one faith, one baptism; one God and Father of all, who is over all and through all and in all."


Col 1:24-25 "Now I rejoice in my sufferings for your sake, and in my flesh, I am filling up what is lacking in the afflictions of Christ on behalf of his body, which is the church, of which I am a minister in accordance with God’s stewardship given to me to bring to completion for you the word of God."


Eph 4:15-16 "Rather, living the truth in love, we should grow in every way into him who is the head, Christ, from whom the whole body... brings about the body’s growth and builds itself up in love." 


Col 3:15 "And let the peace of Christ control your hearts, the peace into which you were also called in one body. And be thankful."

WHAT IS THE CATHOLIC CHURCH?


The church that Jesus established - the Catholic Church (Mt 16:16-20; Lk 22:29-30)


The Priests of the New Covenant - catholic popes, bishops, and priests (Lk 22:19, 1 Cor 11:25)


Only current people commissioned and empowered by Jesus - catholic popes, bishops, and priests (Mt 28:18-20)


Only person authorized to have the "keys to the Kingdom" - the catholic popes as successors of St. Peter (Mt 16:18-19)


Only people authorized to consecrate bread and wine into the Eucharist - catholic popes, bishops, and priests (Mt 26:26-27, Mk 14:22-23)


Only people authorized to forgive sins on earth - catholic popes, bishops, and priests (Jn 20:21-23)


Only church Jesus promised that hell would not prevail against it - the Catholic Church (Mt 16:18)


Only church Jesus promised to be with forever - the Catholic Church (Mt 28:20)

JESUS LEFT A KINGDOM, NOT A BOOK (Lk 22:29-30)


Before Christ died, he commissioned specific people to have authority in His absence.  His apostles were his closest disciples with Peter, James, and John the three that he chose to accompany Him during key events (Transfiguration, Raising Jairus's daughter from the dead, Agony in the Garden).  When the apostles are listed in the bible, Peter is always mentioned first.  This primary position culminates with Peter’s confession of who Christ is.  Jesus asks his apostles, “But who do you say that I am?” Simon Peter said in reply, “You are the Messiah, the Son of the living God.” Jesus said to him in reply, “Blessed are you, Simon son of Jonah. For flesh and blood* has not revealed this to you, but my heavenly Father. And so I say to you, you are Peter, and upon this rock, I will build my church, and the gates of the netherworld shall not prevail against it. will give you the keys to the kingdom of heaven. Whatever you bind on earth shall be bound in heaven, and whatever you loose on earth shall be loosed in heaven.” Matt 16:15-19  
 
Although this sounds confusing to us, every first-century Jew would have known that the keys indicated absolute authority as in the prime minister of the Temple who had the keys to rule in the King’s absence. Isa 22:21-22 Binding and loosening were legal terms that also conferred absolute authority.  Peter became the rock that the church was built which also shows the giving of authority from the Living Stone. 1 Peter 2:4-8
 
Authority was given secondarily to the rest of the apostles. Mt 18:18 His kingdom on earth (the church) was also “built upon the foundation of the apostles and prophets, with Christ Jesus himself as the capstone.” Eph 2:20 Jesus did not leave us a book.  The only time he wrote anything was briefly in the sand when he was with the woman who had sinned.  No, he left us a Kingdom with people in charge that he had conferred His authority upon. 
 
After the last supper, when Jesus instituted the Eucharist, commanded that it be continually celebrated as a memorial, and instituted His apostles as the first priests of the New Covenant, he conferred upon them his kingdom and the authority to judge, “It is you who have stood by me in my trials; and I confer a kingdom on you, just as my Father has conferred one on me, that you may eat and drink at my table in my kingdom; and you will sit on thrones judging the twelve tribes of Israel.” Lk 22:29-30
 
Scripture is God’s beautiful Word that is inerrant truth. However, Jesus didn’t hand out bibles before He ascended.  His last instructions to His apostles were, “All power in heaven and on earth has been given to me. Go, therefore, and make disciples of all nations, baptizing them in the name of the Father, and of the Son, and of the Holy Spirit, teaching them to observe all that I have commanded you. And behold, I am with you always, until the end of the age.” Mt 28:18-19 Jesus is with His church, the Catholic church, until the end of the age, the church that is the “church of the living God, the pillar and bulwark of the truth.” 1 Tim 3:15

AUTHORITY PASSED ON BY ETERNAL OFFICES


Jesus gave all authority and power to the apostles with primacy to Peter.  This included being responsible for guarding, teaching, and maintaining all of Christ's teaching.  The apostles were the only ones authorized to interpret the meaning of scripture which at the time was the Jewish scripture (what we call the Old Testament) and determine if any new writings were the inspiration of God. 

 

In His divine wisdom, Jesus established the start of his church with offices.  That way each office had the authority and power if transferred to another.  Any first-century Jew would have recognized this structure and strictly followed it. 

 

Before the exile, Isaiah demonstrates this authority and governance by explaining how the prime minister (master of the house) of the temple was an office.  In the king's absence, the person of this office had complete authority and the "keys to the kingdom."  See Isaiah 22.  In almost identical language, Jesus gives the keys of the new kingdom first to Peter and then to the rest of the disciples (Matt 16:19 and Matt 18:18). Jesus explains the authority he has given to the apostles, "He who receives you, receives Me, and he who rejects you, rejects Me and the One who sent Me." (Matt 10:1, 40).

THE NEW COVENANT PRIESTHOOD


Jesus, Himself, created the eternal office of New Covenant Priesthood.  This was foreshadowed and prefigured by the Old Covenant priesthood.  It is a misconception to think that their is a sharp division between the Old and New Testaments or the Old Covenants and the New Covenant.  The same holds true for the priesthood.  God, the Father created it all.  The entirety of scripture is one continuous love story, one economy of revelation and salvation.  When Jesus selected the twelve men who would become His apostles he did more than just honor them.

Mark tells us that, "He appointed twelve, whom he also named apostles, to be with him, and to be send out to proclaim the message, and to have authority to cast out demons.  So he appointed the twelve..." (Mark 3:14).  The Greek word for appoint is epoison, which means "to create" or "to ordain."  The same verb, appointed (epoison), is used to refer to God appointing Jesus, "Consider that Jesus the apostle and high priest of our confession was faithful to the one who appointed him" (Heb 3:1-2).  Jesus created this new position for the Twelve, similar to God the Father appointing Him. 

Why twelve apostles?  The number twelve represents the twelve tribes of the Old Covenant who were all initially priests until the sin of the golden calf in Exodus 32.  So although this office is new and created by Christ, it is also a continuation, a perfection of the priesthood of the Old Covenant.  Jesus, Himself, claims in His most important sermon, "Do not think that I have come to abolish the law or the prophets; I have come not to abolish but to fulfill."

TRINITARIAN HIERARCHY OF THE PRIESTHOOD

As first described in scripture, the authority of Jesus's kingdom on earth has a three-tiered structure of Bishop, Priest, and Deacon.  All Bishops are priests.  By grace and the power of the Holy Spirit, one bishop is duly elected to serve as the servant of the servants of God.  Although all baptized Christians have a limited role as a priest in the New Covenant, only those authorized and chosen in succession serve the role in the ministerial priesthood including all responsibilities and powers.

THE OFFICES OF ORDINATION (Eph 4:11-12; Matt 10:1, 40)


Pope (head bishop) Mt 16:18; Isa 22:22; 1 Pet 2:25
Bishop (episcopoi) - Acts 15:6; Acts 22:14-15; Mk 16:15; Gen 14:18; Heb 13:17; Heb 13:7
Priest (elders, presbyteroi) - Acts 14:23; Titus 1:5; Acts 20:28; Jam 5:14; 1 Pet 5:1-4-15
Deacon (diakonoi) - Acts 6:1-15; 1 Tim 3:10; 
Offices transmitted to others - 2 Tim 2:2; 1 Cor 11:2

 

APOSTOLIC SUCCESSION - Current authorized priests transferred all power and authority to chosen successors with the rite and ritual that included the biblical symbol of laying on of hands. Gen 48:8-20; Num 27:15-23; Num 11:16-25; Deut 34:9; Mark 8:22-25; 1 Tim 4:14; Acts 6:2-6; Acts 8:14-17
 

THE TITLES "FATHER" AND "BISHOP" IN THE NEW TESTAMENT


The English word "priest" is derived from the Greek word presbuteros, which is commonly rendered into Bible English as "elder" or "presbyter." The ministry of Catholic priests is that of the presbyters mentioned in the New Testament (Acts 15:6, 23). The Bible says little about the duties of presbyters, but it does reveal they functioned in a priestly capacity. 

They were ordained by the laying on of hands (1 Tm 4:14, 5:22), they preached and taught the flock (1 Tm 5:17), and they administered sacraments (Jas 5:13-15). These are the essential functions of the priestly office, so wherever the various forms of presbuteros appear--except, of course, in instances which pertain to the Jewish elders (Mt 21:23, Acts 4:23)--the word may rightly be translated as "priest" instead of "elder" or "presbyter." 

Episcopos arises from two words, epi (over) and skopeo (to see), and it means literally "an overseer": We translate it as "bishop." The King James Version renders the office of overseer, episkopen, as "bishopric" (Acts 1:20). The role of the episcopos is not clearly defined in the New Testament, but by the beginning of the second century it had obtained a fixed meaning. There is early evidence of this refinement in ecclesiastical nomenclature in the writings of Ignatius of Antioch (d. A.D. 107), who wrote at length of the authority of bishops as distinct from presbyters and deacons (Epistle to the Magnesians 6:1, 13:1-2; Epistle to the Trallians2:1-3; Epistle to the Smyrnaeans 8:1-2). 

The New Testament tendency to use episcopos and presbuteros interchangeably is similar to the contemporary Protestant use of the term "minister" to denote various offices, both ordained and unordained (senior minister, music minister, youth minister). Similarly, the term diakonos is rendered both as "deacon" and as "minister" in the Bible, yet in Protestant churches the office of deacon is clearly distinguished from and subordinate to the office of minister. 

In Acts 20:17-38 the same men are called presbyteroi (v. 17) and episcopoi (v. 28). Presbuteroi is used in a technical sense to identify their office of ordained leadership. Episcopoi is used in a non-technical sense to describe the type of ministry they exercised. This is how the Revised Standard Version renders the verses: "And from Miletus he [Paul] . . . called for the elders [presbuteroi]of the church. And when they came to him, he said to them . . . 'Take heed to yourselves and all the flock, in which the Holy Spirit has made you guardians [episcopoi], to feed the church of the Lord.'" 

In other passages it's clear that although men called presbuteroi ruled over individual congregations (parishes), the apostles ordained certain men, giving them authority over multiple congregations (dioceses), each with its own presbyters. These were endowed with the power to ordain additional presbyters as needed to shepherd the flock and carry on the work of the gospel. Titus and Timothy were two of those early episcopoi and clearly were above the office of presbuteros. They had the authority to select, ordain, and govern other presbyters, as is evidenced by Paul's instructions: "This is why I left you in Crete . . . that you might appoint elders in every town as I directed you" (Ti 1:5; cf. 1 Tm 5:17-22).

Use of the title "Father" in the New Testament


Paul explains to the Corinthians that he has "become your father in Christ Jesus." - 1 Cor 4:15
Paul refers to Timothy and Titus as his true "children in faith"- 1 Tim 1:2, 18:2, Titus 1:4
Paul says he has become the "father" of Onesimus - Phm 10
Peter refers to himself as father by calling Mark his "son" - 1 Pet 5:13
John calls members of the Church "children" - 1 John 2:1,18, 28; 3:18; 5:21; 3 John 4
John calls the elders of the church "fathers" - 1 John 2:1,13-14
Jesus refers to Abraham as our "father" - Matt 3:9; Luke 3:8
God's angel says Jesus will be given the throne of his "father" David - Luke 1:32
Jesus, in his parable about the rich man, says our "father" Abraham - Luke 16:24, 30
The Samaritan woman asks Jesus if He is greater than our "father" Jacob - John 4:12
Peter and John pray to God and refer to our "father" David - Acts 4:25
Stephen refers to our "fathers" in the faith - Acts 7:11-12, 15, 19, 38, 44-45, 51-52
Paul calls Isaac, a spiritual leader, our "forefather" - Rom 9:10
Paul says that he was zealous for the tradition of his "fathers" - Gal 1:14
The author of Hebrews says God spoke of old to our "fathers" - Heb 1:1
The Holy Spirit says that your "fathers" put me to the test - Heb 3:9
James says, was not our "father" Abraham justified by works? - Jam 2:21

PRIESTLY CELIBACY IS CHURCH PRACTICE, NOT DOGMA

 

Why did St. Paul (a priest of the New Covenant) say he wish more men were celibate like himself (1 Cor 7:7)?  Being single gives a Christian freedom not only to serve more people but also to spend more time with the Lord in prayer. Indeed, that interior life with Jesus is essential to living celibacy in a joyfully fruitful way—to be a “eunuch for the sake of the kingdom” as Jesus himself exemplified and extolled (Matt. 19:12).  Paul is able to serve others well as a spiritual father because he himself is first loved by Jesus and his Father in heaven (John 15:16; 17:20-23).  Joyful celibacy is a loving response to God's call.  It's beyond natural, it's super-natural.  That doesn't mean it's easy.  Then again, neither is marriage of the single life.  

A commonly misunderstood scripture verse is 1 Tim 3:2-3, where the priest, St. Paul, tells another priest, Timothy, "Now a bishop must be above reproach, the husband of one wife, temperate, sensible, dignified, hospitable, an apt teacher, no drunkard, not violent but gentle, not quarrelsome, and no lover of money.” Paul is speaking of being married just once, not claiming that being married is essential to the episcopal (Bishop's) office.  The verse clearly does not claim that all bishops should be married.

Below are some scripture verses that unpack celibacy in the bible:


Matt 19:11-12 – Jesus says celibacy is a gift from God and whoever can bear it should bear it. Jesus praises and recommends celibacy for full-time ministers in the Church. Because celibacy is a gift from God, those who criticize the Church’s practice of celibacy are criticizing God and this wonderful gift He bestows on His chosen ones.


Matt 19:29 – Jesus says that whoever gives up children for the sake of His name will receive a hundred times more and will inherit eternal life. Jesus praises celibacy when it is done for the sake of His kingdom.


Matt 22:30 – Jesus explains that in heaven there are no marriages. To bring about Jesus’ kingdom on earth, priests live the heavenly consecration to God by not taking a wife in marriage. This way, priests are able to focus exclusively on the spiritual family, and not have any additional pressures of the biological family (which is for the vocation of marriage). This also makes it easier for priests to be transferred to different parishes where they are most needed without having to worry about the impact of their transfer on wife and children.


1 Cor 7:1 – Paul teaches that it is well for a man not to touch a woman. This is the choice that the Catholic priests of the Roman rite make.


1 Cor 7:7 – Paul also acknowledges that celibacy is a gift from God and wishes that all were celibate like he is.


1 Cor 7:27 – Paul teaches men that they should not seek marriage. In Paul’s opinion, marriage introduces worldly temptations that can interfere with one’s relationship with God, specifically regarding those who will become full-time ministers in the Church.


1 Cor 7:32-33, 38 – Paul recommends celibacy for full-time ministers in the Church so that they are able to focus entirely upon God and building up His kingdom. He “who refrains from marriage will do better.”


1 Tim 3:2 – Paul instructs that bishops must be married only once. Many Protestants use this verse to prove that the Church’s celibacy law is in error. But they are mistaken because this verse refers to bishops that were widowers. Paul is instructing that these widowers could not remarry. The verse also refers to those bishops who were currently married. They also could not remarry (in the Catholic Church’s Eastern rite, priests are allowed to marry; celibacy is only a disciplinary rule for the clergy of the Roman rite). Therefore, this text has nothing to do with imposing a marriage requirement on becoming a bishop.


1 Tim 4:3 – in this verse, Paul refers to deceitful doctrines that forbid marriage. Many non-Catholics also use this verse to impugn the Church’s practice of celibacy. This is entirely misguided because the Catholic Church (unlike many Protestant churches) exalts marriage to a sacrament. In fact, marriage is elevated to a sacrament, but consecrated virginity is not. The Church declares marriage sacred, covenantal and life-giving. Paul is referring to doctrines that forbid marriage and other goods when done outside the teaching of Christ and for a lessor good. Celibacy is an act of giving up one good (marriage and children) for a greater good (complete spiritual union with God).


1 Tim. 5:9-12 – Paul recommends that older widows take a pledge of celibacy. This was the beginning of women religious orders.


2 Tim. 2:3-4 – Paul instructs his bishop Timothy that no soldier on service gets entangled in civilian pursuits, since his aim his to satisfy the One who enlisted him. Paul is using an analogy to describe the role of the celibate priesthood in the Church.


Rev. 14:4 – unlike our sinful world of the flesh, in heaven, those consecrated to virginity are honored.


Isa 56:3-7 – the eunuchs who keep God’s covenant will have a special place in the kingdom of heaven.


Jer. 16:1-4 – Jeremiah is told by God not to take a wife or have children.

GETTING IN TO HEAVEN

Our earthly pilgrimage ends when we experience bodily death.  At that point our eternal circumstances are fixed.  We are either destined for heaven or hell with particular judgement.  Scripture says that "it is appointed for men to die once, and after that comes judgment" (Heb 9:27).  If we die in God's grace and friendship, most of us will make a detour to purgatory which St. Catherine of Genoa describes as painful, but extremely joyful.  Why joyful?  At that point, the soul knows they are destined for Heaven, but relishes at the chance to completely repair the consequences of their sin by being purified.  Arrived in purgatory, a soul is forgiven, but in need of justice in the form of temporal punishment.  An after-death purification from sin and the consequences of sin is described in the New Testament in passages such as 1 Cor 3:11-15 and Matt 5:25-26; 12:31-32.

All the early church understood purgatory.  Here are quotes from Tertullian in the third century AD and Saint Cyril of Jerusalem in the fourth century.

“We offer sacrifices for the dead on their birthday anniversaries [the date of death—birth into eternal life]” (The Crown 3:3 [A.D. 211]).

“A woman, after the death of her husband . . . prays for his soul and asks that he may, while waiting, find rest; and that he may share in the first resurrection. And each year, on the anniversary of his death, she offers the sacrifice”  ~ Terrullian, Monogamy, 10:1–2 [A.D. 216]).  

“Then we make mention also of those who have already fallen asleep: first, the patriarchs, prophets, apostles, and martyrs, that through their prayers and supplications God would receive our petition; next, we make mention also of the holy fathers and bishops who have already fallen asleep, and, to put it simply, of all among us who have already fallen asleep, for we believe that it will be of very great benefit to the souls of those for whom the petition is carried up, while this holy and most solemn sacrifice is laid out”   

                              ~ St. Cyril of Jerusalem, Catechetical Lectures, 23:5:9 350 AD

SALVATION SUMMARY

Initial Justification - The process of original sin, all current personal sin, and death being conquered in us; and our start of a new life in Christ is called initial justification.  This is all done as a free gift through the Holy Spirit by the merits of Jesus's death on the cross and His resurrection.  To receive this initial justification, we need to have faith in Jesus (Rom 1:17) and the gospel, confess your sins (Matt 6:12) to a priest (Jn 20:22-23) and be baptized by water in the name of the father, the son, and the Holy Spirit (Matt 28:19).  This purifies your soul of all original and current personal sin.  Grace, virtue and the gifts of the Holy Spirit are infused into you (Isa 11:2-3a, Matt 3:16) like Jesus demonstrated at His baptism.

Whew, I'm saved forever, right?  No.  Go back and read all the biblical requirements for maintaining your justification/salvation, the importance of the Eucharist, and how easy it is to lose your salvation.  We need to grow in holiness, also called sanctification.  Sanctification is the process by continuing to join your life more and more with Christ.  This is a process that we will continue to do during our entire earthly life.  Because God created us with free wills, we can turn our back on Christ at any time.  We can lose our faith and salvation.  
 
Sanctification – We maintain our justification and grow more holy by prayer and the sacraments.  Along with these we also strengthen faith by the virtues of faith, hope and charity (love) and the gifts of the Holy Spirit (Isa 11:2-3a).  If we sin, through the merits of Jesus, we can receive forgiveness through confession.  1 Tim 2:5 tells us the Jesus is the only mediator between God and man.  Jesus gave all authority to Peter, the apostles, and all their successors to govern His kingdom on earth and forgive sins in his name (Matt 16:19, Jn 20:22-23).  We can go to Jesus by invoking the intercession of the angels and saints (Matt 18:10, Rev 5:8, Rev 8:3-4).  We need to pray for others (1 Tim 2:14, Jam 5:16).  We need to perform acts of charity, fasting, alms-giving, and prayer (Mt 6:1-18) to store up treasures in heaven (Matt 6:20).  We need to go to Mass (Lk 22:19) and receive the Eucharist (Jn 6:51) if in a state of grace, without mortal sin (1 Cor 11:27-29).  When we sin, we need to keep going to confession for Christ’s redemption (1 Jn 1:8-9).
 
Death & Salvation – Having been baptized, dying in a state of grace with Christ’s supernatural life within you (Mt 25:31, Rom 1:18-32, 1 Jn 5:16, Rev 21:8) and having cooperated with God's love (Jn 5:28-29; Rom 2:5-8) we have the hope of salvation and eternal blessedness with the Holy Trinity.  

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